Basic Hydraulics Pdf

9 t 4 * Including upper and lower machine, 90. ♦ Design Division Hydraulics Branch (DES-HYD) ♦ 6. Whether we're talking about axle ratios, compression, carburetor size, timing, or e. Download: HYdraulic Book. Hydraulics is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids or fluids. These are some of the topics highlighted in this textbook: Introduction to hydraulics Construction of a simple hydraulic systems. It has many applications, notably in construction equipment and manufacturing machinery. W3-spool: hydraulic regeneration extends cylinder quickly. hydraulic fluid dirty 2. Basic hydraulic device. Please note: To register. According to the type of feedback signals, closed-loop servo systems can be classified into three basic types: (1) Position servo system (2) Velocity servo system and (3) Pressure/Force servo system. Lesson 1: Gear Pump Basics. • Elevation can be ignored in typical hydraulic systems • Where: ρ is the density of the fluid, p. In this module you will learn some of the basic terms as you study static and dynamic conditions. There are basically four elements to the system, as well as possibly many smaller associated components for specialized purposes. Small design teams (1-2 students each) design and build a single axis for use in the completed mechanical arm. Scope of Hydrologic and Hydraulic Activities. Introduction To Hydraulic Design In this introduction you will learn: • Hydraulic design process - from how hydraulic issues are identified to final report approval. Hydraulics 101. Hydraulics, Basic Principles and Components is included as part of the course material. We can regard it as a process that force applied at one point is transmitted to another point. Hydraulics & Pneumatics Editor Alan Hitchcox has curated a timeless collection of some of the best articles on fluid power written by consultant and educator Bud Trinkel. Examples of equipment that might use hydraulic fluids are excavators and backhoes, hydraulic brakes, power steering systems, transmissions, garbage trucks, aircraft flight control systems, lifts, and industrial machinery. The Basic Hydraulics training course covers hydraulic principles of mechanical maintenance, types of hydraulic fluids and their characteristics. Air filled in the cycle tube is the best example for its use. Forward stroke is achieved by. Fluid Power Basics; Engineering Essentials: Fundamentals of Hydraulic Pumps. 's, our hot-rod language sets us apart. Basic Hydraulic Questions Answers. The products are sold in more than 20 countries: UK, Italy, Germany, Russia, etc. A culvert is a relatively short segment of conduit that is typically used to transport water underneath a roadway or other type of earthen embankment. BASIC HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS Subcourse Number AL 0926 EDITION A US Army Aviation Logistics School Fort Eustis, Virginia 23604-5439 4 Credit Hours Edition Date: September 1994 SUBCOURSE OVERVIEW This subcourse is designed to provide instruction on the concept and operation of the basic components of the hydraulic system. A basic hydraulic. 11 kgf/cm2} Counterweight 90. Training courses for hydraulic systems, safety technology and project planning. Students learn about the fundamental concepts important to fluid power, which includes both pneumatic (gas) and hydraulic (liquid) systems. PDF Drive - Search and download PDF files for free. Hydraulic Basics Objectives. 0 ton counterweight and 24. (Scottsdale, Ariz. 4 River surveys 331 8. flow, pressure). Read these extensive report and overview by simply. AND any ONE of my insider secrets will pay for the entire book, or you can return it for for a 150% refund. Basics of hydraulics This documents is a training, reviewing the basics of hydraulics specifically for Water Supply System. Hydraulic Pump/Motor Division Hydraulic Flow is developed as the pump rotating group is driven by a prime mover Hydraulic Pump Basics –Fluid is forced out of pump at the pump outlet –A Partial vacuum is created at the pump inlet and atmospheric pressure forces fluid into pump from the reservoir. Customized Power Units. At AFP we understand this, which is why we give our customers so many. basic civil engineering. Identify the main components of the pneumatic work station TP 101. The transfer of energy takes place because a quantity of liquid is subject to pressure. 4) pascal's law2) multiplication of forces 2. they provide high power output with very small weight and size. Hydraulics Basic level - Festo The TP 601 basic level is suitable for. Subsequent lessons then describe the various components that make up a complete system, beginning with hydraulic fluid and progressing through the various mechanical components. Electric current flow is proportional to voltage difference according to Ohm's law, and both the bird's feet are at the same voltage. been searching for this ebook for a while now and luckily, I have already found the full ebook, and startes reading it already!!. Explain the importance of using standard hydraulic symbols. Different types of valves are available: gate, globe, plug, ball, butterfly, check, diaphragm, pinch, pressure relief, control valves etc. Apply loctite anti-seize before installing cylinder end cap. Hydraulics Unloading Valve Basic Principle and Symbol. Hydraulic Tank Capacity 600 liters Self-Removal Device Standard Weight Operating Weight* Approx. HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT DESIGN AND ANALYSIS A Hydraulic circuit is a group of components such as pumps, actuators, and control valves so arranged that they will perform a useful task. Hydraulic Applications. • 5900 west franklin drive • franklin, wi 53132-9178 • (414) 423-7400 • fax: (414) 423-7414 82-4. pdf (247KB) Hydraulic System Initial Start-UP and Maintenance – This four page guide outlines basic hydraulic system start-up and maintenance tasks in paragraph and table formats. Hydraulic systems are extremely important for the operation of heavy equipments. Hydraulic Pump. Hydraulics - Basics and Components. Learn about basic concept of Flood Hydraulics Understand the Relationship between Hydraulics and the factors which causes flooding. hydraulic machinery made easy gate handwritten notes download pdf. This site is like a library, you could find million book here by using search box in the header. The standard rig provides improved performance over the LS100 & LS200 winch operated rigs and is recommended for use in clay and sandy soils or soft rock formations. NHI 135095 - Two-Dimensional Hydraulic Modeling of Rivers at Highway Encroachments. Hydraulic Piping Standard Handbook is intended for professionals working within industries where hydraulic piping is used. Fluid Power Basics By Peter Nachtwey, Delta Computer Systems, Inc. That's a saving of $20 off the cover price and less than the cost of a few gallons of hydraulic oil. 4 River surveys 331 8. Phone : (303) 945-9080 Email : [email protected] The above system shows a front end loader powered by a PTO driven pump. Presses deliver energy through a force that acts over a distance or stroke. Hydraulics, branch of science concerned with the practical applications of fluids, primarily liquids, in motion. Posted: (6 days ago) Hydraulics 101 PDF. Highway hydraulic structures perform the vital function of conveying, diverting, or removing surface water from the highway right-of-way. Chapter 3 discusses the qualities of fluids acceptable for hydraulic systems and the types of fluids used. William Graff is a professor in the School of Engineering and Engineering Technology at LeTourneau University, where he has taught since 1975. Basic-PSA’s Quality Assurance program meets ASME Section III, and 10CFR50 App. Similar searches: Hydraulic S, Fluid Mechanics And Hydraulic Machines By R. Danfoss - Facts Worth Knowing About Hydraulics (Danfoss 0898). BASIC HYDRAULICS A SYSTEM STUDY PINAKI ROY 2. • Solution:. Note: these topics about elevators in this course EE-1: Beginner's electrical design course is an introduction only for beginners to know general basic information about elevators as a type of Power loads. Coiled Tubing Hydraulics Modeling Tech Note CTES, L. Geometric - Joomla 3. Title: Introduction to Basic Hydraulics 1 Introduction to Basic Hydraulics Experiment 1-1 2 How to Use this Workbook The workbook is broken down into 3 Units and 19 experiments, each experiment having one or more parts. FAILURE OR IMPROPER SELECTION OR IMPROPER USE OF THE PRODUCT AND OR SYSTEMS DESCRIBED. Hydraulic Fittings Catalog. Bailey International, LLC - your mobile hydraulics source Chief Hydraulic Power Unit (12V DC, Single Acting): 1. Khalil Gibran The forces on moving body of fluid mass are: 1. Prentice-Hall International, Hemel Hempstead, U. A typical hydraulic press consists of a pump which provides the motive power for the fluid, the fluid itself which is the medium of power transmission through hydraulic pipes and connectors, control devices and the hydraulic motor which converts the hydraulic energy into useful work at the point of load resistance (Sumaila 2002; Sharma 2005). Discharge under a sluice gate. The Way to the complete Hydraulic System: (explanation of symbols, see page 3) Basic system with hydraulic pump and hydraulic motor (or cylinder). Safety of operation 2. Pneumatics is a branch of engineering that makes use of gas or pressurized air. Fluid lines: transport the fluid to and from the pump through the hydraulic system. Table of Contents: Chapter 1. Groundwater movement is always in the downward direction of the hydraulic head gradient (Figure 5). pdf basic hydraulics Safe maintenance of hydraulic systems. Explain the main parts of the hydraulic power pack. Troubleshooting Specific Course Objectives (includes SCANS):. Responding to Drainage Complaints ♦ 8. It is related to fluid mechanics (q. Units and Variables First of all, understanding that water has a unit weight is important. Both systems contain four basic components: reservoir/receiver, pump/compressor, valve, cylinder. Due to constriction at entrance, the inlet configuration has a significant effect on hydraulic performance. Apr 9, 2017 - Animation - How basic hydraulic schematic circuit works. Basics of Hydraulics and Hydraulic Systems. GPM = Gallons Per Minute. Ashby In the second extreme, all recent and advanced topics in hydraulic power system design should get their turn. HEC-RAS is an integrated system of software, designed for interactive use in a multi-tasking, multi-user network environment. Valves are mechanical devices that controls the flow and pressure within a system or process. While there are different kinds of pumps,actuators, valves, etc. A hydraulic cylinder also known as linear hydraulic motor is a mechanical actuator that is used to give an unidirectional force through an unidirectional stroke. Locking Ring Style Set Screw. BS Civil Engineering –Wayne State Univ. Learning Outcomes: 1. This is supplemented by a numerical question and an invitation for students to describe another hydraulic machine of their own invention. Fluid Reservoir. Froehlich}, year={1988} }. This course introduces the basic equations of groundwater flow, the analytical techniques that have. Hydraulic motors Objectives After reading this chapter, the student will be able to: • Differentiate between hydraulic pumps and motors • Understand and describe the design and construction of various motors used in hydraulics • Explain the operation of the various hydraulic motors of the likes of gear, vane and piston motors and also evaluate…. Diamonds represent conditioning devices, such as filters, heaters or coolers. Electro-Hydraulic Servo Valve Construction, Models and Use From Merritt, H. 2) classification & 1. Local Agency Ordinances and Requirements ♦ 7. Majumdar on Amazon. By Josh Cosford, Contributing Editor. (The above examples of related curricula are not all-inclusive. advantages of hydraulics 17 compactness small in size comparing basic machine area occupied is small. Hydraulic machines and systems consist of a basic setup where fluid is forced from one cylinder to another. 2 Description The electro-hydraulic system used in this experiments is the EHS160 (FEEDBACK INSTRUMENTS LTD). Customized Cylinder. TK Series Motors 7,Basic Hydraulic Motor Formulas,T CIR X PSI 6 28 lbs inch. By Josh Cosford, Contributing Editor. Free PDF book Download About this Book: Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics is intended for use as an up-to-date text for the two-course sequence of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering offered to undergraduate civil engineering students. It is, however, also possible to use electrical actua-tion. Research in the field of tree hydraulics takes place at very different scales, which is reflected in this review that scales from descriptions of cell anatomy to eluci-. axial-deformations-iit. Hydraulic Series The Lone Star Hydraulic drill rigs are available in standard and “Plus” versions. Hydraulic cylinders to convert the hydraulic energy into linear force and motion or; Hydraulic motors to convert the hydraulic energy into continuous rotary motion; Ancillary equipment including filters, heat exchangers, tanks, pipes, etc. Created Date: 3/20/2017 3:59:50 PM. F, Dimensional analysis-Rayleigh’s method and Buckingham’s pi theorem-study of Hydraulic models, Hydrodynamic force of jets on stationary and moving flat. View Formula Sheet - Basics of Hydraulics. Because many small systems are on tight budgets, understanding hydraulics can save money. Most people associate water power with the Hoover Dam—a huge facility harnessing the power of an entire river behind its walls—but hydropower facilities come in all sizes. Gravitational associated with specific gravity 3. For these reasons, such factors as fluid compressibility, friction, and leakages are assumed to be. A typical hydraulic press consists of a pump which provides the motive power for the fluid, the fluid itself which is the medium of power transmission through hydraulic pipes and connectors, control devices and the hydraulic motor which converts the hydraulic energy into useful work at the point of load resistance (Sumaila 2002; Sharma 2005). The hydraulic medium is usually mineral oil, and in hydraulics, synthetic oils and emulsions, as well as water (water hydraulics), are also used. This page is part of the Pump Tutorial Series. Bailey International, LLC - your mobile hydraulics source Chief Hydraulic Power Unit (12V DC, Single Acting): 1. Backhoes are used at surface metal and nonmetal mines for various types of applications. Hydraulic filters are rated by the "size" of the largest opening in the filter media. Hydraulic Pump: Common types include gear, piston or vane. Pump is noisy. may be determined as the volume of fluid pumped per revolution at zero differential. Hydraulic System Troubleshooting Guide. Intermediate-level classes address how to quantify and compare power variables, and they also discuss the specific applications for components within each major category. It is basically the use of under pressure gas that. Learning Aids 1. We have a 401-page textbook available, entitled “Hydraulics – Basics and Components”. 31JUL13 ©2010-2013 Sun Hydraulics Corporation Figure 1. Hydraulics is a science that deals with the laws governing liquids in motion. In hydraulics-based systems, mechanical movement is produced by contained, pumped liquid, typically through cylinders moving pistons. Rexroth offers a wide area of industrial hydraulics training courses. Basic Hydraulics. Item Number: 9-7201-F 30 In Stock. Details : This subcourse is designed to provide instruction on the concept and operation of the basic components of the hydraulic system. 4 River surveys 331 8. stability or sensitivity to parameter changes. Functional Circuits 5. Gear Pumps 9. Prerequisites: This lesson is designed so that no prior knowledge is required. Description: This lesson covers the components of hydraulic systems and explains how the components function together to operate a hydraulic system. Diamonds represent conditioning devices, such as filters, heaters or coolers. Self-Assessment Questionnaire - used to support the introduction to hydraulics and identify levels of previous. PUBLISHED BY THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES CENTER Fundamentals of Hydraulics: Flow Summary Hydraulics is the branch of engineering that focuses on the practical problems of collecting, storing, measuring, trans-porting, controlling, and using water and other liquids. 80562/B/1 For 1 – 3 levels, steel For 1 – 3 levels, stainless steel Sturdy, torsion-free, welded steel construction, with built-in foot pump and pedal for height adjustment and separate pedal for lowering. Item Number: SDC-HJ 3 In Stock. At body section. Khalil Gibran The forces on moving body of fluid mass are: 1. These basic relationships are also the foundations of river hydraulics. To assess the knowledge of your maintenance personnel, you can administer our online hydraulics quiz. You can imagine the dashed line bisecting the filter symbol acts to trap particles as they pass through. Basic Electrical Engineering Books and Notes Pdf Free Download, Basic Electrical Engineering Books Pdf, Basic Electrical Engineering Pdf Notes, Basic Electrical Engineering Books Pdf, Basic Electrical Engineering Dp Kothari Pdf Free Download, Basic Electrical Engineering Pdf By B L Theraja Pdf Free Download, Basic Electrical Engineering Revised Edition by V. Basics on Screening and Hydraulics MWEA Lagoon Committee May 2018 Presented by: Steve Aiken. To look at particular testing requirements and methods. Posted: (6 days ago) Hydraulics 101 PDF. We have a 401-page textbook available, entitled “Hydraulics – Basics and Components”. Differentiate between control/pilot signal and power/primary signals. Amatrol’s Portable Basic Hydraulics Training System (990-BH1) allows learners to gain skills by studying topics like basic hydraulic circuits, pressure control circuits, hydraulic schematics, and sequence valves. HYDROGEOLOGY LECTURE NOTES HYDROGEOLOGYLECTURENOTES-2. pdf The Hydraulic Trainer Volume 1 ( Basic Principles & Components of Fluid Technology ) The Hydraulic Trainer Volume 2 ( Proportional & Servo Valve Technology ). When partnered with the Basic Hydraulics 1 course, the nineteen practical exercises reinforce all of the learning from Basic Hydraulics 1. Hydraulics, branch of science concerned with the practical applications of fluids, primarily liquids, in motion. These basic relationships are also the foundations of river hydraulics. Print Length: 1102 pages. When using a standard booster, the high pressure volume of the unit must exceed the system requirement. AND any ONE of my insider secrets will pay for the entire book, or you can return it for for a 150% refund. 093281 EN Hydraulics Basic Level Textbook P A T T 1Z1 0P1 0M1 50 l 1V3 1V2 0Z2 0Z1 32/22 x 200 6000 kPa 2. The science behind hydraulics is called Pascal's principle. This includes basic information on the topics of technology and electronics that applies to all of us. Sets and elements Set theory is a basis of modern mathematics, and notions of set theory are used in all formal descriptions. Hydraulics Unloading Valve Basic Principle and Symbol. We're going to start with the gear pump. Dulal [pdf] Computer Programming to solve some problems On Hydraulics - Dr. Oil is pumped. At body section. Book Free Download. Basic hydraulics. While there are different kinds of pumps,actuators, valves, etc. At a very basic level, hydraulics is the liquid version of pneumatics. Read online Training Basic Hydraulics book pdf free download link book now. File Size:. 0 t (Upper), 24. Learn hydraulic safety, hydraulic system fundamentals, and identify hydraulic system components in our Basic Hydraulics 1 course. Hydraulic systems are not new to aviation. The principle behind most hydraulic systems is similar to that of the basic hydraulic jack. HS-50 is a great alternative to J525 or seamless hydraulic tubing in fittings and fluid lines. Focuses on fluid pressure for automotive uses and other applications. 06 avg rating, 17 ratings, 0 reviews, published 2002 and Pneumatic Systems 3. Posted: (6 days ago) Hydraulics 101 PDF. Since current flow is necessary for electric shock, the bird is quite safe unless it simultaneously touches another wire with a different voltage. (Scottsdale, Ariz. Please note that many systems operate in environments or contain components that have other maintenance and/or start-up. Hydraulic head is calculated as the sum of an elevation term, a pressure term, and a kinetic energy term, h = z + p ρg + v 2 2 g, where h is the hydraulic head [L], z is the height of the water. This system replaces the factory mechanical drive system with a complete hydraulic system capable of producing the original line pull. In this series of tutorials we cover the basics of hydraulics calculations as it relates to fire protection engineering. Hydraulics Lectures and Class Notes Free Download. Mobile hydraulics has a range of specialized features compared to conventional industrial hydraulics. For example, a hydraulic system is often used on small airplanes to operate wheel brakes, retractable landing gear, and some constant-speed propellers. This training course is a logical next step seminar after FOH for your understanding of industrial hydraulics. 5 Flow control valves 2. Basic Fluid Mechanics and. Terms in this set (50) The ability of a fluid to penetrate into small clearances between closely fitted parts is determined by the fluid's. Dulal [pdf] Computer Programming to solve some problems On Hydraulics - Dr. BASIC HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS Subcourse Number AL 0926 EDITION A US Army Aviation Logistics School Fort Eustis, Virginia 23604-5439 4 Credit Hours Edition Date: September 1994 SUBCOURSE OVERVIEW This subcourse is designed to provide instruction on the concept and operation of the basic components of the hydraulic system. 48 gallons 1 gallon contains 231 cubic inches. The temperature of the. It contains Fluid Mechanics basic concepts, Fluid theories, fluid. PDF search engine allows you to find free PDF books and files and download them to your computer. HYDRAULIC PRODUCT SAFETY DIRTY OIL: Oil must be filtered to a minimum of 25 microns. Sign up now to be included in the public distribution list, to connect with others who have duties that include a focus on stream and riparian restoration. A 2-spool directional control valve with built-in relief controls the lift and bucket cylinders of the loader. In this article we will learn about the hydraulic tank basic concept, its design, tasks, components, the importance of pressure ratio in a hydraulic tank, which component is responsible for which task & hydraulic tank types. Single direction of input, output and lift. These systems are capable of remotely controlling a wide variety of equipment by transmitting force, carried by the hydraulic fluid, in a confined medium. 7 River improvement 342 Worked examples 353 References 360 9 Diversion works 364. Chapter 4 covers the hydraulic pump, the. If there is no hydraulic head gradient. Learning Aids 1. The force is almost always multiplied in the process. The piston rises in the cylinder to make room for the oil that’s being pumped in. Whether we're talking about axle ratios, compression, carburetor size, timing, or e. The main products are AC & DC hydraulic. The machine room for hydraulic elevators is located at the lowest level adjacent to the elevator shaft. Formulary Hydraulics. Basic Hydraulics: A one day hydraulic training course which teaches how hydraulics work, standard fluid power symbols, basic priciples of hydraulics, basic fluid power theory, and basic hydraulic circuit training. Note Students are allowed a 5 PSI confidence interval. Mechanical Engineering Principles aims to broaden the reader’s knowledge of the basic principles that are fundamental to mechanical engineering design and the operation of mechanical systems. pdf download 10. The basic concept of hydraulics and pneumatics. Cylinders with the lightest load will move first, and cylinders with the heaviest load will move last (Load A), as long as the cylinders have the same capacity. Gritt 11 10/6/2002 11 Front/rear Hydraulic Split Front Axle Rear Axle This is a diagram of a basic front-rear split hydraulic system. Historical aspects of water distribution system. 's, our hot-rod language sets us apart. Fluid Power: Hydraulics and Pneumatics is a teaching package aimed at students pursuing a technician-level career path. Allow's review! We will typically locate out this sentence all over. It covers a range of topics related to hydraulics and electrohydraulics, including basic hydraulics principles, electricity and electronics, amplifiers, cartridge valves and circuits. Discharge in a prismatic channel using the Manning equation. hydraulics (the science of groundwater movement), water pressure surface and water table elevation are referred to as thehydraulic head. DOWNLOAD – Hydraulics and Pneumatics Book (PDF) By Andrew Parr – Free Download PDF. The last basic shape commonly used in hydraulic symbology is the diamond. Start studying Basic Hydraulics. Hydraulic power is used in everything from automotive brakes to industrial robots. 943 1,500 5. Basic Hydraulics Setting up a Hydraulic System Guide Key to Measurements. These machines get their strength and efficiency through changing the size of one cylinder compared to the other, a principle called hydraulic multiplication. This new format allows the reader to practice disassembly and reassembly of practically any type of mechanical device in a 3D view. 3956 virginia avenue, cincinnati, ohio 45227, phone (513) 272-5481, fax (513) 272-5484 2. This attention to quality gives students experience they would normally only get on-the-job by helping them recognize industrial components and how to troubleshoot them more effectively. W3-spool: hydraulic regeneration extends cylinder quickly. 4 KiB) OSP 815 - Repair instructions series EBV (618. Certain physical laws or principles apply to all liquids and gases. Unknown July 25, 2015 at 1:36 AM. Students learn about the fundamental concepts important to fluid power, which includes both pneumatic (gas) and hydraulic (liquid) systems. Training is scheduled for Tuesday, September 11 through Thursday, September 13. Stewart, Harry L. Basic – Hydraulic Metric DISP-GFM370 370 Pieces Carbon Steel, Zinc Trivalent Parts Included Description Angle Hex Qty Page H2100Z3 m5 x 0. DVDs included: (Select a product for more information or to preview online. The basic level package TP501 teaches basic knowledge of hydraulic control technology, while the advance level package TP502 builds on this. Hydraulic Systems Chapter 11 Material taken from Goering, 2003, Off-Road Vehicle Engineering Principles Basic Principles Hydraulic fluids are virtually incompressible at the pressures used in hydraulic systems. , 4-8, Shiba-Daimon 1-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0012 JAPAN TEL. Coiled Tubing Hydraulics Modeling Tech Note CTES, L. • Who to coordinate design with and where to get help. Read these extensive report and overview by simply. This 3-day course emphasizes safety, hands-on training and troubleshooting techniques. Hydraulic pressure on either. Creamer, P. The notion of set is taken as “undefined”, “primitive”, or “basic”, so we don’t try to define what a set is, but we can give an informal description, describe. The torque converter clutch is applied by hydraulic pressure The PCM will control a Torque Converter Clutch (TCC) solenoid to send ATF under pressure to the lock‐up clutch Modern TCCsolenoids are duty cycled to gradually apply The TCCwill only lock in higher gears. Valves: control pressure, direction and flow rate of the hydraulic fluid. Flow is the general movement of fluid. Item Number: 9-CP100-3-B-0-005 27 In Stock. Air filled in the cycle tube is the best example for its use. 1) bramah's press 2. Basic Hydraulic Principles A simple hydraulic system consists of hydraulic fluid, pistons or rams, cylinders, accumulator or oil reservoir, a complete working mechanism, and safety devices. This system replaces the factory mechanical drive system with a complete hydraulic system capable of producing the original line pull. The working of this press is very simple. The pressure at the bottom of the jug is equal to the externally applied pressure on the top of the fluid plus the static fluid pressure from the weight of the liquid. 0 / february 2002 interstop corp. Laws have been established to explain the behavior of hydraulic systems. Pneumatics (From Greek: πνεύμα pneuma, meaning breath of life) is a branch of engineering that makes use of gas or pressurized air. As a word 'pneumatics' is new but we see and use pneumatic devices daily in our life. edu or by phone at 1. Mechanical Engineering Principles aims to broaden the reader’s knowledge of the basic principles that are fundamental to mechanical engineering design and the operation of mechanical systems. In Cab Control Valves 14. Hydraulic and Pneumatic Simulation Software. This difference in the two pistons. Define hydraulics and explain its major operating systems. The values refer to the basic profile in accordance with ISO 68. Read online Basic Hydraulics and Pneumatics - Maysaa Nazar book pdf free download link book now. This series universal testing machine is mainly used to do stretching, compression and bending testing for metal and nonmetals such as rebar,wire rope,anchor rod,bolt fastener,cable and so on. One type of. Basic Hydraulic Jack System Schematic Basic Hydraulic Jack System Schematic; Basic Hydraulic Motor - Reversing System Schematic Power-driven pump operating a reversible rotary motor. The materials cover these concepts: differential forces, flow rates, opposition to flow, energy storage, time constants, impedance matching and resonance. If you need help, call Jergens Technical Sales at: 1-800-JERGENS (537-4367). Fluid Power: Hydraulics and Pneumatics is a teaching package aimed at students pursuing a technician-level career path. Phone: (215) 638-4700 | Fax: (215) 638-1707. Download Training Basic Hydraulics book pdf free download link or read online here in PDF. William Graff is a professor in the School of Engineering and Engineering Technology at LeTourneau University, where he has taught since 1975. Open-Channel Hydraulics by Ven Te Chow Open-Channel Hydraulics by Ven Te Chow PDF, ePub eBook D0wnl0ad Open-Channel Hydraulics, originally published in 1959, has been described as one of the best textbooks ever written. 7 Filters 2. seals item 9b rod wiper item 9e tube seal back-up item 9a tube seal o-ring item 9c rod scraper. * Power Hydraulics by Michael J. hydraulic systems; evaluate hydraulic components by inspection and testing; and explain the theory, circuits, and application of hydraulics. 120 t Ground Pressure* 94 kPa {0. This chapter presents all the symbols used in hydraulic schematics, the various hydraulic circuits, the hydraulic schematics, and a hydraulic circuit for performing a desired function. • Limit Analysis should be used to check ideas. Flow has two components to consider: flow rate and flow velocity. Hydraulic cylinders to convert the hydraulic energy into linear force and motion or; Hydraulic motors to convert the hydraulic energy into continuous rotary motion; Ancillary equipment including filters, heat exchangers, tanks, pipes, etc. The pump also has a pressure port that connects to the hydraulic cylinder and a larger port connected to the hydraulic reservoir. Hydraulics is the generation of forces and motion using hydraulic fluids which represents the medium for the transmission of power. Majumdar on Amazon. File Size:. pdf The Hydraulic Trainer Volume 1 ( Basic Principles & Components of Fluid Technology ) The Hydraulic Trainer Volume 2 ( Proportional & Servo Valve Technology ). Observe how hydraulic components can be connected together to construct a hydraulic circuit. Overview 2. Live demonstrations in person and via the Web provide trainees. ISBN 9780408011129, 9781483140766. • Interpret hydraulic system symbols and circuit diagrams • Describe techniques for energy saving in hydraulic systems Introduction Typical hydraulic circuits for control of industrial machinery are described in this lesson. It also has pump load sensing and compensation. Identify the main components of the pneumatic work station TP 101. Identify the main parts of a pneumatic system. ! Describe the primary components of a hydraulic system. hydraulic cylinder maintenance and repair manual 33qc-snc throttle cylinder interstop part #135259 project no: 02-19 rev. Accumulators 10. Calculated out this gives an output flow of 23. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the basic components of a unit of instruction: performance objectives, suggested activities for teachers and students, information sheets, assignment sheets, job sheets, visual aids, tests, and answers to the test. 2) law of conservation of energy3) hydraulic power transmission uses of 3. Describes components of the hydraulic system and their functions for maintenance procedures, including filters and strainers, reservoirs and accumulators, pumps, piping, tubing and hoses, control valves, relief valves, and actuating devices. If you experience any problems with the site, please contact Pete Hoffman immediately so corrections can be made. The basis for all hydraulic systems is expressed by Pascal's law which states that anywhere upon an enclosed liquid is transmitted undiminished, in all directions, to the interior of the container. Hydraulic symbols - Chapter 5 Basic symbols used in hydraulic engineering including those according to SMS and Cetop. In the case of a servovalve, the spool position moves in proportion to the input signal. 12 thoughts on “ Hydraulic Troubleshooting: The Basics ” Michael O. This book can only be purchased by those who attend the course. 1) hydraulics basic definitions 1. Solids Typical hydraulic Digester type content (%) retention time (days) Temperature Covered lagoon N/A 30–40 Psychrophilic Plug flow 11–14 10–25 Mesophilic (68–113˚F, optimally around 86 –100˚F) or thermophilic (122 – 131 ˚F up to 158˚F) Complete mix 5–10 10–25 Mesophilic or thermophilic Fixed film <1 A few days Mesophilic or. Pneumatics is the Study and application of compressed gas to produce mechanical motion. Jobson and David C. • The simplest theory that fits the facts of a problem is the one that should be selected. Pinches and John G. Dulal [pdf] Part II: Open Channel Flow Tutorial solutions -by Dr. Explain basic fluidic principles. Given the characteristic velocity scale, U, and length scale, L, for a system, the Reynolds. 3) force , pressure , area 1. An introduction to fluid power and hydraulic components and circuitry for technology and engineering students with a basic understanding of physics and mechanics. Customized Power Units. The fundamental equations are developed in this report with sufficient rigor to support critical examinations of their applicability to most problems met by hydraulic engineers of the Water Resources Division of the United States Geo­ logical Survey. Hydraulic machines and systems consist of a basic setup where fluid is forced from one cylinder to another. Standard Hydraulic Oil 100 SSU - 49˚C Inlet Oil Temp 0 0 Pump Outlet Pressure - bar (PSI) 568 (150) 454 (120) 341 (90) 227 (60) 114 Pump Outlet Flow - lpm (GPM) (30) 69 (1000) 138 (2000) 275 (4000) 345 (5000) 207 (3000) PV 063 PV 080 PV 092 PV 140 PV 180 PV 270 Piston Pumps (Industrial) PVplus High Pressure Industrial Piston Pumps For 360. Outputs can be on/off voltage signals or proportional PWM signals to control the hydraulic valving. This Quiz is designed to test basic hydraulic systems knowledge on the MC-130H Combat Talon II and the MC-130P Combat Shadow. However, the harm caused by the technological process by hydraulic fracturing causes the restraint to the market. Camshaft Basics From the February, 2009 issue of Chevy High Performance By Bob Mehlhoff. two basic types of continuous thickeners: Conventional and High-rate. This ensures that the obvious is never overlooked. Hydraulic Press DO NOT use this machine unless you have been trained and assessed to a competent level in its safe use and operation, and have been given permission to use this equipment. Specifically addressed in this document is the use of liquid hydraulic oil in motion and at rest in a system to transmit or generate force for hydraulic clamping applications. Hydraulic Systems The Basics Basic Principles Liquids: Have no Shape Are incompressible Transmit force in all Directions, Equally Multiply Force A P F How does it work? System Parts Advantages & Disadvantages of Hydraulics Advantages: Flexibility Multiplication of Force Simplicity Compact Economy Safety Disadvantages: Efficiency Cleanliness. A programmed approach presents applications of hydraulic components such as pumps, valves and actuators as well as designing circuits from these assembled components. Self-Assessment Questionnaire - used to support the introduction to hydraulics and identify levels of previous. When a hydraulic pump operates, it performs two functions. Basics of Hydraulics and Hydraulic Systems. Air filled in the cycle tube is the best example for its use. They are used for low-rise applications of 2-8 stories and travel at a maximum speed of 200 feet per minute. Students learn background information about fluid power—both pneumatic and hydraulic systems—including everyday applications in our world (bulldozers. Introduction To Hydraulic Design In this introduction you will learn: • Hydraulic design process - from how hydraulic issues are identified to final report approval. HYDRAULIC PUMP TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE No oil flow from pump. Download Ebook Hydraulics Basic Level Workbook Hydraulics Basic Level Workbook Hydraulics Basic Level Workbook Hydraulics Basic Level Textbook P A T T 1Z1 0P1 0M1 50 l 1V3 1V2 0Z2 0Z1 32/22 x 200 6000 kPa 2. Course 1 - Hydraulic System Operation. Hydraulics – Basics and Components. The knowledge gained from the 950-HTB1's hardware and curriculum is ex-. Learn hydraulic safety, hydraulic system fundamentals, and identify hydraulic system components in our Basic Hydraulics 1 course. Hydraulic pressure on either. Local Agency Ordinances and Requirements ♦ 7. This Handbook offers relevant information in one package for anyone installing or using non-welded hydraulic piping systems. It also describes the various components of a typical hydraulic system, their construction and functions, and their relationship to each other. The course begins with basic hydraulic principles and progresses to more intermediate and advanced concepts. Hydraulic filters are rated by the "size" of the largest opening in the filter media. The science behind hydraulics is called Pascal's principle. In this brochure, you will gain an insight into the field of surge protection. Valves are mechanical devices that controls the flow and pressure within a system or process. Basic Hydraulics Rabi H. Pumps (which may be vane, gear, or piston types) are used in hydraulic systems to produce sufficient flow to obtain the speed required from cylinders or motors. A rugged, scotch yoke hydraulic valve actuator that uses the state-of-the-art Powr-Swivl. 30 14 A- 4 APPENDIX A GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS FOR PIPING SYSTEMS AND PLANT. However, a knowledge of basic mathematical skills is recommended. The directional control valve allows reversal of the direction of rotation or of movement at the user. Kiriko- Automatic Shaving Compactor. Design of Intelligent Hydraulic Excavator Control System Based on PID Method 209 adopt two methods to improve the domestic excavator performance, one way is creat-ing joint venture Company with foreign famous company, but this is still not solving the technology sealed problem. O 6A8-3-1 gives information about what system? Universal Air Refueling Receptacle Slipway Installation (UARRSI). Learning Aids 1. Identify the main parts of a pneumatic system. Electric current flow is proportional to voltage difference according to Ohm's law, and both the bird's feet are at the same voltage. With a basic gear pump, it is the kind of pump you'll see on any given mobile machine. The following principles and measurements are commonly associated with fireground hydraulics: 1 cubic foot contains 1728 cubic inches 1 cubic foot contains 7. The term fluid power refers to energy that is transmitted via a fluid under pressure. First, its mechanical action creates a vacuum at the pump inlet which allows atmospheric pressure to force liquid from the reservoir into the inlet line to the pump. Because water is the most common extinguishing agent a basic understanding of its physical properties is essential. Froehlich ABSTRACT The three basic principles of open-channel-flow analysis the conserva­ tion of mass, energy, and momentum are derived, explained, and applied to solve problems of open-channel flow. Flow has two components to consider: flow rate and flow velocity. Hydraulic Press DO NOT use this machine unless you have been trained and assessed to a competent level in its safe use and operation, and have been given permission to use this equipment. The fluid is almost always an oil of some sort. Item Number: 9-7201-F 30 In Stock. The ram and piston (shinining on a forklift or caterpillar bulldozer is working on hydraulics. The basic hydraulic system is shown in Fig 1. In order for the 'obvious' to be obvious, the fundamental laws of hydraulics must be kept in mind. It contains and explain all physical formulas that will be used in the concept design tools. Hydraulic systems use a incompressible fluid, such as oil or water, to transmit forces from one location to another within the fluid. Description Pg. TE Series Motors 4,TF Series Motors 5,TG Series Motors 6. Basic Hydraulics Setting up a Hydraulic System Guide Key to Measurements. * Gives more essential, but simple maths on pipe flow and pressure drops * Offers the latest information on proportional valves and the electronics cards now appearing in hydraulic systems * Includes a new section on safety including European legislation. HYDRAULIC SYMBOLS Lines Line, Working (Main) Line, Pilot or Drain Flow Direction Hydraulic Pneumatic Lines Crossing Lines Joining Lines With Fixed Restriction Line, Flexible Station, Testing, Measurement or Power Take-Off Variable Component (run arrow through symbol at 45°) Pressure Compensated Units (Arrow parallel to short side of symbol). Download Training Basic Hydraulics book pdf free download link or read online here in PDF. There are basically four elements to the system, as well as possibly many smaller associated components for specialized purposes. This 3-day course emphasizes safety, hands-on training and troubleshooting techniques. A culvert is a relatively short segment of conduit that is typically used to transport water underneath a roadway or other type of earthen embankment. Included are sections on safety precautions to follow when handling potentially hazardous fluids, liquid contamination, and control of contaminants. Local Agency Ordinances and Requirements ♦ 7. 5 Flow-measuring structures 337 8. The hydraulic reservoir is a container for holding the fluid required to supply the system, including a reserve to cover any losses from minor leakage and evaporation. Our factory has an annual productivity of 6,000,000 pieces. , in interdisciplinary positions. FAILURE OR IMPROPER SELECTION OR IMPROPER USE OF THE PRODUCT AND OR SYSTEMS DESCRIBED. T CIR X PSI 75 36 lbs ft,CIR GPM X 231 RPM,RPM GPM X 231 CIR. Research in the field of tree hydraulics takes place at very different scales, which is reflected in this review that scales from descriptions of cell anatomy to eluci-. The torque converter clutch is applied by hydraulic pressure The PCM will control a Torque Converter Clutch (TCC) solenoid to send ATF under pressure to the lock‐up clutch Modern TCCsolenoids are duty cycled to gradually apply The TCCwill only lock in higher gears. Bailey International, LLC - your mobile hydraulics source Chief Hydraulic Power Unit (12V DC, Single Acting): 1. This manual Basic Principles and Components of Hydraulics (from the series The Hydraulics Trainer) should aid you in gaining knowledge of hydraulics systems. Control and direct the flow of any hydraulic fluid with the right combination of valves. insidepenton. Basic Hydraulics - Includes Power Beyond. pdf download 11. Essentially, because the liquid in the pipe is incompressible, the pressure must stay constant all the way through it, even when you're pushing it hard at one end or the other. Overview 2. Hydraulic system might be simple or complex but we will have to start with the basic concepts of hydraulic system to find the root cause of a problem and its real solution. Fluid can transmit motion through a closed system. In-Depth, Comprehensive Basic Hydraulics Curriculum. Geometric - Joomla 3. A cherry picker uses hydraulics to raise a working platform. While there are different kinds of pumps,actuators, valves, etc. 11 -In addition to the two types of hydraulic systems, there are also two basic types of hydraulics. Rod side is blocked by B port. Gear Pumps 9. Oil from the reservoir is drawn past a check ball into. Introduction to Hydraulics 2. (force/area = pressure in psi) If a force of 100 pounds is applied to a master cylinder piston, an area of 2 square inches, the resulting pressure will be 50 psi. The main water. Liquids transmit pressure equally in all directions. from hydraulics and pneumatics. Fundamentals of Fire Sprinkler Hydraulic Calculations Basic Concepts and Applications for Water‐Based Systems (Distance Learning Program) Seminar Description: Over a course of nine weeks, basic hydraulic calculations for fire sprinkler systems will be. Hydraulic Body Tray Lifter BASIC No. There is some common terminology that is used in culvert hydraulics that can best be presented by referring to Figure 1. Sample Question. Read online Training Basic Hydraulics book pdf free download link book now. Included are sections on safety precautions to follow when handling potentially hazardous fluids, liquid contamination, and control of contaminants. Download PDF; Order CD-ROM; Order in Print; Home > Army Aviation reference and training manuals > > Lesson 1. The lift is a hydraulic elevator of sorts and has many of the basic parts. The transfer of energy takes place because a quantity of liquid is subject to pressure. Pinches and John G. The Industrial Hydraulics Manual is a color-illustrated hardbound textbook with more than 600 pages of information. Dulal [pdf] Hydraulics_TU_IOE_Question_solution by Dr. It teaches the fundamentals of fluid power and provides details on the design and operation of hydraulic and pneumatic components, circuits, and systems. The primary focus of our WebSite is HYDRAULIC JACKS and related equipment - The different types, uses and capacities, along with their general history, manufacturers and tips on buying and care of. The ratio of inertial to viscous forces is the Reynolds number. Depending on the application that the hydraulic system fulfills, it is often necessary to install redundant systems that enable safe operation of the. The hydraulic. Depending on the application that the hydraulic system fulfills, it is often necessary to install redundant systems that enable safe operation of the. When analyzing or designing a hydraulic circuit, the following three important considerations must be taken into account: 1. Aircraft Hydraulic Systems The word “hydraulics” is based on the Greek word for water and originally meant the study of the physical behavior of water at rest and in motion. Hydraulics is a science that deals with the laws governing liquids in motion. According to the type of feedback signals, closed-loop servo systems can be classified into three basic types: (1) Position servo system (2) Velocity servo system and (3) Pressure/Force servo system. BASIC PRINCIPLES. Both hydraulics and pneumatics are the application of fluid power. The ratio of inertial to viscous forces is the Reynolds number. Oil is pumped. 3 t Transport Weight** Approx. All of our courses are customizable!. BOTH the system and the hydraulic oil is crucial in maximizing uptime and reducing. Basic operation. However, given the demand for new sprinkler designers, there is a need to return to the basics. basic components of the hydraulic system. Pressure Pressure occurs when there is resistance to flow. All hydraulic hoses expand under pressure. Free PDF book Download About this Book: Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics is intended for use as an up-to-date text for the two-course sequence of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering offered to undergraduate civil engineering students. Basic Hydraulic Considerations Disclaimer: This information is provided as-is for the purposes of general guidance for hydraulic modelers. Note: If the flow limiter stops oil flow to the motor: 6a) Move hydraulic lever to “Float” or “Neutral” to remove oil pressure from the flow limiter. Mohtar ABE 325 The river continues on its way to the sea, broken the wheel of the mill or not. MRS – Maintenance, Repair, & Set-up of Industrial Hydraulics This is a 2nd level industrial hydraulics training course developed for the maintenance technician. Hydraulic Schematic Symbols Airline Hydraulic's Main Page Basic Symbols Lines-continuous line - flow line -dashed line - pilot, drain -envelope - long and short dashes around two or more component symbols. The values refer to the basic profile in accordance with ISO 68. HYDRAULIC TRAINING COURSE COURSE 650: 4 DAYS: Max 4 Candidates. Basics of Multi Media Filtration (MMF) Author: Puretec Industrial Water Created Date: 5/23/2012 5:43:16 PM. Simple Hydraulic System 6. CV Low-mass check valves to provide low-shock stability. used as an adjective in many hydraulic terms, all of which of course refer to the inlet side of a pumping system. Technical Details. basic hydraulic drilling circuit important this circuit is a basic method of controlling hypneumat equipment. Stewart, Harry L. Print Length: 1102 pages. pdf download 10. DESCRIPTION: A set of mathematics problems dealing with hydraulics. pdf download 9. Valves: control pressure, direction and flow rate of the hydraulic fluid. You will also learn about the. Air–Over–Hydraulic Brake Systems 21 Air–Actuated–Hydraulic Brake System 21 Air–Boost–Hydraulic Brake System 22 Section Summary Questions 24 Section 3—How the Basic System Works 25 Basic Air Brake System 26 One–way Check Valve 26 Air Pressure Gauge 27 Brake Application Gauge 27 Low Pressure Warning Device 27. 8 t * Including upper and lower machine, 52. Shown disassembled and fully assembled, are two pilot flow valves with either Series P. Calculated out this gives an output flow of 23. Hydraulic systems 1 SCOPE 1. DOCX PRINTED ON 5 MAY 2012 1 Chapter 1 – Introduction to Hydrogeology The Properties of Water Pure water (H 2O) is:. For the project input phase, basic engineering for hydraulic piping is based on the following simplified steps: Define oil flow,. • A problem should be stated in in its most basic and simplest terms. The hydraulics notions useful to design water supply system. Jobson and David C. Hydraulic head is the driving force behind groundwater movement. Amatrol’s Virtual Trainer Courseware – Basic Hydraulics (NB831) teaches learners about essential basic hydraulics concepts applicable across a variety of modern industries, such as manufacturing, transportation, agriculture, and construction. Gravitational associated with specific gravity 3. Zulkifly Abdullah Associate Professor, School of Mechanical Engineering Deputy Dean, Academic and Student Affairs. The symbol for an unloading valve is similar to the symbol for a relief valve except that the pilot line is not connected to sense pressure at the valve inlet. advantages of hydraulics 17 compactness small in size comparing basic machine area occupied is small. Basic Hydraulics 2020 February 18th - 20th April 14th - 16th June 16th - 18th August 18th - 20th October 13th - 15th December 8th - 10th _____ 8:00 am - 4:00 pm (Daily) This three-day hydraulics training crash course is ideal for anyone who wants an introduction or a refresher on the basics of fluid power in a short time frame. Learn the benefits and limitations of fluid power, how to analyze fluid power components and circuits, and how to design and simulate fluid power circuits for applications. Developments Connecting into TxDOT Hydraulic Structures ♦ 9. I Lewis Publisher : Elsevier Science & Technology Books Edition : Pub. Example: (90 psi air pressure) (15:1 boost ratio) = 1350 psi hydraulic pressure The power source must also provide the total volume of oil required by the system. AC 2007-452: A HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS LABORATORY – TO IMPROVE STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF BASIC ELECTRICITY R. The last basic shape commonly used in hydraulic symbology is the diamond. The machine room for hydraulic elevators is located at the lowest level adjacent to the elevator shaft. A set of ready-to-use exercise sheets and worksheets is included in each workbook for all of the exercises. The maximum permitted hydraulic oil temperature in continuous breaker use is 120°-158°F(50°-70°C), depending on the viscosity of the oil in the system. Basic Hydraulic Principles A simple hydraulic system consists of hydraulic fluid, pistons or rams, cylinders, accumulator or oil reservoir, a complete working mechanism, and safety devices. Optional Labs Explore the power behind fluid dynamics and creating mechanical advantage. Full Class I Division 2 Compliance The ControlLogix Hydraulic Servo module maintains CSA Class I Division 2 system certification. It's clear descriptions of timeless fundamental principles make Chow a classic. The science behind hydraulics is called Pascal's principle. Due to the lack of reproducibility, this is depreciated. It is not only intended to be used as. basics of hydraulics1) definitions 1. ISBN 9780408011129, 9781483140766. Hydraulic Cylinder Calculator. Course duration 3 days Syllabus 1. All hydraulic hoses expand under pressure. The hydraulic oil may be very hot and may cause severe scald. (1939), Turbulent flow in pipes with particular reference to the transition region between the smooth and rough pipe laws, J. Cavitation causes metal erosion, which damages hydraulic components and contaminates the fluid. hydraulics synonyms, hydraulics pronunciation, hydraulics translation, English dictionary definition of hydraulics. com, find free presentations research about Basic Hydraulics PPT. It pays to know the basics of hydraulics. Hydraulics Unloading Valve Basic Principle and Symbol. Dulal [pdf] Part II: Open Channel Flow Tutorial solutions -by Dr. W3-spool: hydraulic regeneration extends cylinder quickly. Publication date 1952 Usage Public Domain Mark 1. 2 could be classified as: 1. PDF Download Essential Hydraulics: Fluid Power - Basic, by M. Hydraulic valves all use the same basic piston, spring and orifices but in slightly different ways. Example: The output flow of a pump spinning at a rate of 2000rpm. K-40-LRT-1 25P Gresen Parker 1 Spool Bolt Kit. At a very basic level, hydraulics is the liquid version of pneumatics. Comatrol Check Valve CP100-3-B-0-005 Cartridge Valve. They can be used as stand alone assemblies for in-line system relief and pressure reduction at pressures up to 5,000 PSIG. A basic hydraulic system. 6 This standard provides basic symbols, which differentiate between hydraulic and pneumatic fluid power media. Basic principles of Hydraulics explained. , Hydraulic Control Systems, J. At body section.
aoaefws1wj5coq, 6u9zdp9pdy, 2lqkp6grfy4b, kplfs01igx1j1t7, 5kom3rx7dcmtpa, bf4q7nlg36kk0cr, 8dki8s7jfq, jf4ii1h4pduyo1d, 7cpo1h2gl9r, 2tzkxex8fjun, k7gd05b2r234t, 01jze5c2vtxkp5r, jl4jjft9eg76o, tdztpiejff, mcru2d729ex, vjo0lyl9nbvb8, suiqj7mvt8owkar, u3xga6qgrm, 71s1b9g1pxmt1, 1uryjuent5vc7, u6batctfwds, 2lgvw1nbxsd6w, 93873jdjwiuiwss, 2da55jkfem, q6pyxk67aibi0, a3k04tai154w, l2cl6q61vu1rfij, cfvn0olfz94, 23f9u6toyak67qd, gtcr06oezzza7gs, be7k4mhqmkyhgy, 2ikmt43hq2